The Science of CBD

CBD Science
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Scientific Details About CBD

Want the medical benefits of cannabis without the high? Lose the bong and reach for CBD oil.

How Does CBD Work?

Cannabinoids in the Body

80+ cannabinoid compounds are found in cannabis plants.
Most abundant are THC and CBD.

THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)
■ Psychoactive
■ Creates the characteristic marijuana “high”
■ Can relieve pain and inflammation

CBD (cannabidiol)
■ Non-psychoactive
■ Can reduce negative psychoactive effects of THC
■ Responsible for many of the medical benefits of cannabis
■ Endocannabinoid system (ECS) – Keeps internal bodily functions stable and controls how we think, feel, and react

Cannabinoids we consume interact with receptors in the body to produce different effects.

CBD’s Therapeutic Impact

■ Activates 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, which helps with anxiety, addiction, appetite, sleep, nausea, vomiting
■ Binds to TRPV1 receptors, which moderates perception of pain, inflammation, body temperature
■ Blocks G protein receptor GPR55, which may decrease bone reabsorption and the spread of cancer cells
■ Activates peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which has been shown to produce anti-cancer effect and help with Alzheimer’s

CBD May Also Help With:
■ Epilepsy
■ Cigarette addiction
■ Fibromyalgia
■ Prion/Mad Cow Disease
■ Schizophrenia
■ Crohn’s disease
■ Multiple Sclerosis

CBD oil is one of the most common cannabinoid products that can provide all these benefits.

How is CBD Oil Made?

Pick the Plant
■ CBD oil can come from hemp or marijuana — Both are derived from Cannabis Sativa L.


■ Stalk and seeds used to make textiles, food, paper, and building materials
■ Grows in 15- to 20-foot stalks with woody cores similar to bamboo
■ Contains less than 0.3% THC, not enough to produce a “high”
■ Legality of CBD derived from hemp is debated


■ Cannabis flowers and leaves used for medicinal, recreational, or spiritual purposes
■ Grows in ~5-foot plants that spread out low to the ground
■ Contains 10%-14% or more THC
■ CBD derived from marijuana not legal in all states
■ Legal Debate — The Drug Enforcement Agency and legal experts can’t agree if hemp CBD oil is legal

The viewpoints:

● December 2016: DEA updated the Federal Register to include “cannabinoids derived from any plant of the genus cannabis” as Schedule 1 Controlled Substances
● This would include hemp CBD oil

● 2014 Farm Bill: Made industrial hemp farming legal in some situations, including the sale of hemp-based products
● This would include hemp CBD oil

Bottom Line
● THC-free hemp CBD oil is most likely legal under the Controlled Substances Act
● Law enforcement is unlikely to interfere with individual consumer use

Extract the Good Stuff

Types of CBD formulas:

Full spectrum — Includes all cannabinoids found in the plant, including trace amounts of THC
Isolate — CBD is isolated from other cannabinoids in the plant, which might not offer the same relief as full spectrum

Types of cannabinoid extraction

Alcohol extraction
○ Plant is soaked in a solvent such as grain alcohol
○ When the plant is thoroughly soaked, the solvent is evaporated and only CBD-rich oil remains

CO2 extraction
○ CO2 is forced through the plant by a series of chambers that control temperature and pressure
○ The cannabinoids separate into different chambers, where the extractor can choose which to include

More and more people are discovering the benefits of CBD oil.

CBD Market Expected to Grow 700% by 2020

■ 2015: $202 million ($90 million from hemp-based sources)
■ 2020: $2.1 billion ($450 million from hemp-based sources)

Choose Your Own Way to Use CBD Oil

Different methods have low or high bioavailability (rate at which the drug is absorbed into the body)

Ways to Use CBD Oil

■ Place droplets under the tongue to absorb sublingually
■ Bioavailability: high

■ Add to diet as a daily supplement
■ Bioavailability: low

■ Apply a wax or dab to the inside of the mouth
■ Bioavailability: high

■ Use on skin as lotion, salve, or lip balm
■ Bioavailability: medium

■ Spray oil into the mouth
■ Bioavailability: low

Vape through an e-cigarette, vape pen, or vaporizer
■ Bioavailability: high

Choose your provider wisely

● The FDA does not regulate the safety or effectiveness of CBD oil products
● Make sure you get the best

Ask to see third party lab results
Sellers should be willing to share test results for potency, pesticides, residual solvents, and mycotoxins

Read labels carefully
■ Dosage listed on the bottle should be the actual active CBD, not the dosage of CBD hemp oil

Consult experts
■ Ask for advice from physicians and advocacy organizations to find out what brand is right for you

CBD science


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